In this experiment, we will find out the features in Animal Kingdom of the given specimen and will draw their diagram.
To observe the features in the animal kingdom of the given specimen- cockroach, earthworm, bird, and bony fish. For each specimen, determine the given features-
a. One specific feature of its phylum,
b. One adaptive feature concerning its habitat.
And draw their diagram.
1. Preserved specimens of characteristics of earthworms and bony fish.
3. Practical notebook,
1. Animals live in those habitats which is suitable for them. They have certain features which enable them to live in those habitats. The features which enable them to live in any particular habitat, when they get adapt according to their features, are called adaptations. Adaptation is due to the presence of certain modifications at the morphological, anatomical, and psychological levels in the organism. Different adaptations in organisms can be studied by observing certain features at the morphological level.
1. Specimen should be observed under the microscope carefully.
2. Note down the observed characteristics.
3. Now draw the well-labeled diagram in your notebook.
Let us have a look at the features of different animals from the animal kingdom.
The scientific name of the earthworm is Pheretima. Which belongs to the phylum Annelida.
FEATURES OF PHYLUM
1. Animal’s body is divided into two parts, internally and externally, which are called metameres.
2. Locomotory organ, Chitinuos setae are present.
ADAPTIVE FEATURES OF EARTHWORM
Earthworm lives under the holes of soil. They have the following adaptive features.
1. They have a body that is elongated and cylindrical.
2. The anterior end of the body is pointed.
3. Prostomium is a sensory lobe that is present over the mouth. This lobe helps them in sensing the soil when digging.
4. They feed on humus and soil. They excrete fine soil and undigested material.
5. Skin is always moist through the mucus gland.
The scientific name of this cockroach is Periplaneta. Which belongs to the phylum Arthropoda.
FEATURE OF PHYLUM
1. The body of this phylum is divided into segments with distinct segments.
2. It has three pairs of legs jointed appendages.
Cockroaches are the dwellers of warm, dark, and wet places. They are mostly found in drains, basements, sewers, etc. Adaptation features of the earthworm include;
1. Chitinuou Cuticle is impervious to water and is present all over the body.
2. Spiracles help in respiration which is present at the lateral side of the body.
3. Two antennae and two compound eyes are present on the head of the body.
4. Antennae help in sensing the soil.
This belongs to the Chordata phylum. Its subphylum and class are Vertebrata and Pisces.
FEATURES OF PHYLUM CHORDATA
Notochord, post, and nail are present.
FEATURES OF CLASS PISCES
1. They are aquatic.
2. Four pairs of gills are present, which are covered by the operculum.
3. Terminal mouths are present.
ADAPTIVE FEATURES OF BONY FISH
1. They are adapted to water.
2. They have a streamlined body which helps them in swimming.
3. For locomotion, they have tail fins, pectoral fins, pelvic fins, and dorsal.
4. For movement in the water, pelvic fins and dorsal help them. While pectoral fins help in brake and tail fins help in changing the direction.
5. Nictating membrane is present around the eye, which protects them from water.
6. They have which helps them in buoyancy.
This animal belongs to the family Chordata. Its subphylum is Vertebrata and has class, Aves.
FEATURES OF PHYLUM CHORDATA
They have a notochord and post-anal tail.
FEATURES OF CLASS AVES
1. Beak is present.
2. Forelimbs are divided into wings.
3. These are oviparous.
ADAPTIVE FEATURES OF BIRD
Birds are adaptive to air, i.e. they are adapted to live in the air. Below are the adaptive features of birds.
1. Their bodies are streamlined which helps in resistance to the air current.
2. Their feathers help to provide insulation.
3. Bones have air cavities in them to reduce their weight while flying.
4. Nictitating membrane is present around the eye.
1. Observe the specimen.
2. Carefully draw the diagram.
In this way, we have learned to find out the features of the given specimens and will draw their diagram.
Q.1 What do you understand by adaptation?
ANS. The features which enable animals to live in any particular habitat are called adaptations.
Q.2 What is the scientific name of cockroach?
Q.3 From which phylum does the cockroach belong?
ANS. Belongs to the phylum Arthropoda.
Q.4 What is the name of the sensory organ of fish?
ANS. Lateral line.
Q.5 Give any two aquatic adaptation features?
ANS. The body is being streamlined and the fins are for locomotion.
Q.6 How do tail fins help fish?
ANS. For changing direction.
Q.7 Why fish can see clearly in the water
ANS. Due to the presence of a nictitating membrane that does not allow water into the eyes of fish.
Q.8 What is the term used for respiration through the skin?
ANS. Cutaneous respiration.
Q.9 What is the chemical name earthworm?
Q.10 From which class of phylum does the bony fish belong?
ANS. Chordata phylum
An Indian nuclear physicist, founding director, and professor of physics at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research.