Characteristics Of The Plant Kingdom | Science Experiment

by | Jun 15, 2022 | Biology, Experiments

Introduction

In this experiment, we will learn to determine the characteristics of the plant kingdom. Let’s get started.

Aim

To study the characteristics of the plant kingdom, i.e. Moss/Fem Spirogyra Agaricus, Pinus (male or female or cone), and an Angiospermic plant. Draw their diagrams and give at least two identifying features.

Materials Required

1. Permanent slide of Spirogyra,

2. Specimens of Agaricus,

3. Moss,

4. Fern,

5. Pinus (male cone or female cone),

6. An Angiospermic plant and compound microscope.

Theory

1. Every plant belongs to the kingdom Plantae.

2. Plants are eukaryotes, autotrophic and multicellular.

3. These also include algae, ferns, mosses, and angiosperms.

4. All of them have rigid cellulose cell walls.

Procedure

Step 1: Put the spirogyra slide under the microscope’s lower power, and observe it carefully.

Step 2: Observe the microscope carefully and draw the diagram of the obtained image.

Step 3: Observe all the specimens under the microscope and draw their well-defined images.

Observations

Now let us observe the characteristics of the plant kingdom of each type one by one.

A. Identifying Features of Spirogyra

1. Body of this plant is filamentous, which is elongated, multicellular, and unbranched.

2. Each filament is long and made up of cylindrical cells. These plants are longer than broader.

3. Each cell comprises two cell walls.

4. The inner wall of the cell wall is composed of cellulose, and the outer wall is composed of pectin.

5. Nucleus is enclosed by the cytoplasm, present in the form of strands.

6. Flat, spiral, and ribbon-shaped chloroplasts are present.

7. Starch-containing pyrenoids are present in the cytoplasm at an equal distance from each other.

8. In each cell, a large vacuole is present.

Spirogyra filament under low-pressure   Spyrogyra filament under high pressure

B. Identifying Features of Agaricus (Mushroom)

1. Agaricus has an umbrella-like shape. It is fleshy and macroscopic.

2. It has two main parts; the first one is fleshy, stalked called a Stipe, and the second one is an umbrella-like cap borne on the stipe called Pileus.

3. Annulus has a ring-like structure that is attached to the Stipe.

4. Gills are present on the lower side of the Pileus. They have a structure that resembles vertical plates and also contains spores.

Characteristics Of The Plant Kingdom: Mushroom

C. Identifying Features of Moss

1. They are also called Funeria.

2. It has a height of 2-3 cm

3. Gametophyte is the main part of the body which contains minute green leaves that are arranged spirally.

4. These plants have several rhizoids which perform the function of rots.

5. Archegonia is the female sex organ, present at the apex of the main axis. A branch known as male shoot bears antheridia at the tip of the branch.

6. The female part of the plant has a sporophyte which contains the foot, capsule, and seta.

Identifying Features of Moss

D. Identifying Features of Fern (Dryopteris)

1. The plant body is divided into three parts which are the root, stem, and leaves.

2. The stem part of the body is underground, short, and stout, known as a rhizome.

3. Roots are fibrous and grow from the rhizome.

4. From the buds, grown on rhizomes, large leaves arose.

5. Small leaflets are grown on either side of the rachis.

6. Ramenta are the brownish scales present on the petiole and the stem of the plant.

7. Sporophylls are the mature leaves present on the ventral surface and bear sori.

8. Young leaves of the plant rolled from the apex downwards.

Young plant Sporophyll

E. Identifying Features of Pinus (Chir)

1. Pinus are found on hills. They are long and evergreen trees.

2. The body of the plant is divided into roots, stem, and leaves.

3. These plants have well-developed roots.

4. These plants have two types of shoots, long and dwarf shoots.

5. Branches of long shoots show unlimited growth. And the branches of dwarf shoots show limited growth.

6. Leave of these plants are of two types:

  1. These leaves are photosynthetic and have long needles like shapes borne on dwarf shoots.
  2. Scaly leaves are small and brown, borne on both kinds of shoots.

7. These plants are monoecious. Male and female cones are present on different branches of the same plant.

8. Seeds are naked, i.e. they are not enclosed in fruits.

Features of Pinus (Chir)

MALE CONE

1. These cones are present on long branches in clusters.

2. It contains many microsporophylls arranged spirally around the axis.

3. These are brown in colour and ovoid.

4. Tw microsporangia are borne by each sporophyll on the ventral surface of the cone.

5. Each microsporangium contains a large number of winged microspores.

FEMALE CONE

1. This cone arises in the axis of scale leaves on the long branch.

2. Megasporophylls are arranged spirally around the short axis of the cone.

3. Two ovules are present on the lower side of the megasporophylls.

4. Size of the female cone depends on the age of the cone.

a. Cones are small in their first year.

b. In its second year, cones become large and woody, and microsporophylls are arranged compactly.

c. In its third year, microsporophyll detaches themselves from each other and becomes elongated.

F. Identifying Features of Angiospermic Plants [Mustard {Brassica Campestris}]

1. The body of this plant is divided into two parts, the root system and the shoot system.

2. The parts of the root system are under the ground. It has many lateral branches.

3. The shoot system is the aerial part of the plant body, containing stems, flowers, fruits, seeds, and leaves.

4. Stems are divided into two parts: nodes and internodes. It is green in colour.

5. At the nodes, leaves are present.

6. Flowers are the plant’s reproductive organ, which contains four parts – calyx, corolla, androecium, and gynoecium.

7. The produced fruits are enclosed in the seeds.

Characteristics Of The Plant Kingdom

Conclusion

In this way, we have learned to study the characteristics of the Plant Kingdom, i.e., Moss/Fem Spirogyra Agaricus, Pinus (male or female or cone), and an Angiospermic plant.

Viva Questions with Answers

Q.1 What do you understand by taxonomy?

ANS. Taxonomy is that branch of science that deals with the classification, nomenclature, and identification of the living organism.

Q.2 What do you know about thallophytes?

ANS. Those plants whose bodies can not be differentiated into roots, stems, and leaves are called thallophytes.

Q.3 Give an example of thallophytes?

ANS. Ulothrix

Q.4 Describe the characteristics of algae.

ANS. Algae contain chlorophyll and are autotrophic. Its body resembles a thalloid, and its cells consist of cellulose.

Q.5 Give a function of the pyrenoid body.

ANS. It stores starch in the cell.

Q.6 What is the scientific name of Mushroom?

ANS. AGARICUS

Q.7 What do you know about fungi?

ANS. Fungi are heterotrophic and non-green organisms. It has a thalloid body.

Q.8 Can you give an example of fungi?

ANS. Yeast

Q.9 How many types of shoots are present in Pinus?

ANS. Two. Long and dwarf shoots.

Q.10 What do you understand by rhizome?

ANS. The stem part of the body, which is underground, short, and stout, is known as the rhizome.

 

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