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# Density’s Effect on Amplitude

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Contents

## Introduction

In this science experiment, we will try to determine density’s effect on amplitude. To perform this experiment, we will observe whether the density of gasses such as helium, carbon dioxide, and air kept in different jars affects the amplitude of buzzing in the jar.

We hypothesized that the density of gasses does affect the amplitude of sound traveling through the medium, and as a result, the amplitude of buzzing in the air will be less than the amplitude of buzzing in carbon dioxide, but the amplitude of buzzing in the air will be greater than the amplitude of the buzzing in the air. Because the speed of sound depends on the density of the medium, this means the greater the density, the more will be the speed of sound. And the speed of sound depends on the energy it contains, and this means the greater the energy, the more will be the amplitude of the sound.

## Aim

To determine whether the density of gasses (helium, carbon dioxide, and air) kept in different jars affects the amplitude of buzzing in it.

## Theory

Density can have an effect on amplitude in certain situations, particularly in the context of wave propagation. Amplitude refers to the maximum displacement or distance from the equilibrium position that a wave reaches as it propagates through a medium.

In general, when a wave travels through a medium, its amplitude will decrease as it travels further from its source. This is due to the fact that some of the energy of the wave is absorbed or scattered by the medium as it travels. The amount of energy absorbed or scattered by the medium depends on various factors, including the density of the medium.

For example, in a medium with high density, such as a solid material, the particles of the medium are closely packed together, which can make it more difficult for a wave to propagate through it. As a result, some of the energy of the wave may be absorbed or scattered by the medium, which can cause the amplitude of the wave to decrease more rapidly than it would in a less dense medium.

On the other hand, in a medium with low density, such as a gas, the particles of the medium are more spread out, which can make it easier for a wave to propagate through it. As a result, the wave may be able to travel further before its amplitude decreases significantly.

It’s important to note that density is not the only factor that can affect the amplitude of a wave. Other factors, such as the wavelength and frequency of the wave, the properties of the medium, and the distance from the source, can also play a role.

## Requirements

1. Three half-gallon jars and lids,

2. Five-gallon of helium,

3. Three microphone transducers (16 VDC).

4. Small chunky dry ice,

5. Oscilloscope,

6. Three electrical buzzers (20 VDC),

7. Four small chunks of dry ice,

8. Notebook.

## Procedure

Step 1: Take three gallons of jars.

Step 2: Put three gasses (helium, carbon dioxide, and air) in each of the three jars.

Step 3: Attach a microphone transducer to each of the gallons.

Step 4: Using an oscilloscope, record your observation.

Step 5: The buzzing of the sound wave was shown on the division screen of the oscilloscope.

Step 6: Record the crest and trough obtained on-screen in mV.

## Observation

We had the following observation in Density’s Effect on Amplitude experiment:

1. In helium, the average amplitude of buzzing is 1.03125 mV.

2. In the air, the average amplitude of buzzing is 1.25 mV.

3. In carbon dioxide, the average amplitude is 0.5125 mV.

4. We observed that the average amplitude of buzzing in carbon dioxide was lower than all, helium was in the middle, and the air had the highest amplitude.

5. The jar of carbon dioxide got cold because CO2 was in the form of ice.

6. Carbon dioxide had a density of 1.1 grams per liter at a temperature of -37 degrees celsius. On a website, we found that the temperature of carbon dioxide at 25 degrees celsius was 1.527 grams per liter.

7. When carbon dioxide was between the temperature of 0 degrees Celsius to 4 degrees Celsius, it was maximum dense because it was in the state of dry ice (solid).

8. The density of carbon dioxide increases with increasing temperature.

9. As the frost accumulated on the buzzer of the carbon dioxide jar, it got cold, which restricted the oscillation of the buzzers. And as a result, the jar of carbon dioxide produces a low amplitude of buzzing.

## Result

1. Our hypothesis was partly correct.

2. The amplitude of the buzzing of gasses does not depend only on density but also depends on temperature.

3. The buzzing in carbon dioxide was more than the buzzing in helium.

4. Carbon dioxide had the lowest amplitude of buzzing, but it was a little bit affected by the temperature.

5. Therefore, the amplitude of the buzzing is affected by the density of the medium in which it was traveling. And the density of the medium varies based on the altitude, temperature, and pressure of the medium.

## Precaution

1. Helium should be more than five gallons.

2. Make sure the oscilloscope is working properly.

## Conclusion

In this experiment, we determined Density’s Effect on Amplitude to understand whether the density of a medium affects the amplitude of sound in that medium.

Q.1 What was the aim of your experiment?

ANS. To determine the Density’s Effect on Amplitude and observe whether the density of gasses (helium, carbon dioxide, and air) kept in different jars affects the amplitude of buzzing in it.

Q.2 What was the average amplitude of buzzing in carbon dioxide?

ANS. The average amplitude of buzzing in carbon dioxide was 0.5125.

Q.3 What was the average amplitude of buzzing in the air?

ANS. The average amplitude of buzzing in the air was 1.25.

Q.4 What was the average amplitude of buzzing in helium?

ANS. The average amplitude of buzzing in helium was 1.03125.

Q.5 Why was the buzzing in carbon dioxide lowest?

ANS. As the frost accumulated on the buzzer of the carbon dioxide jar, it got cold, which restricted the oscillation of the buzzers. And as a result, the jar of carbon dioxide produces a low amplitude of buzzing.

Q.6 On what factors does the density of any medium depends?

ANS. The density of any medium varies based on its pressure, temperature, and altitude.

Q.7 What is the effect of density on amplitude?

ANS. The amplitude of any medium depends on its density. But density varies based on different factors such as pressure and temperature.

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