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# Does the Rate of Heating Have an Affinity for Salinity

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Contents

## Introduction

In this experiment(does the rate of heating have an affinity for sanity), we will be determining the effect of salinity and initial temperature on the rate of cooling and heating of water.

## Aim

To determine how water’s initial temperature and salinity affect its cooling and heating rate.

## Theory

1. The amount of salt dissolved in a water body is called salinity and saline water.

2. The more the salt present in a water body, the more the salinity.

## Requirements

1. Table or sea salt,

2. Distilled water,

3. Heat lamp,

4. An aquarium pump,

5. A digital thermometer,

6. A computer,

7. Notebook.

## Procedure

Step 1: Add sea or table salt to 200 ml of distilled water to make it saline.

Step 2: Heat this saline water by using a heat lamp for fifteen minutes.

Step 3: Now, remove the heat lamp and let the water cool.

Step 4: Connect the airing stone with an aquarium pump for mixing the water during the process of water temperature for maintaining a uniform temperature.

Step 5: Use a digital thermometer for measuring temperature every five seconds.

Step 6: Transfer this data to your computer.

Step 7: Plot the graph in Excel.

Step 8: Use a linear least square tool in excel for the slope of the temperature Vs time. This slope will provide the rate of cooling and heating.

Step 9: Repeat the experiment four times.

Step 10: Use standard deviation to estimate the error in the cooling and heating of water.

Step 11: For an initial level of four degrees Celsius temperature, five levels of salinity (0, 17.5, 35, 87.5, and 175) parts per thousand corresponding to (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5) times the normal salinity level (35 parts per thousands) were tested for both seas as well table salt.

## Observation

1. The heating rate, which we measured for three saline water, was 0, 1, and 5 times the normal salinity of sea at an initial temperature of four degrees Celsius for both types of salt (tale and sea).

2. We observed the trend with salinity only in some of the experiments.

3. The largest trend we obtained with salinity is ocean salt heating at 20 degrees Celsius and table and sea salt heating at 4 degrees Celsius.

4. This could not establish a definite trend because the measurements we obtained were smaller than the error bars.

5. But with the obtained value, we can roughly predict that the heating rate increases with increasing salinity.

## Result

We have observed in some cases that the heating rate increases with salinity, but we are in no position to establish a definite connection between salinity and heating rate and cooling rate. This happened because the trend, determined by linear least-squares of heating rates as a function of salinity, was smaller than the error bars.

## Precaution

1. Mix the extra water slowly into the heated water.

2. Heating lamp must have produced enough heat for heating the water.

3. Record your observation precisely.

## Conclusion

In this experiment, we determined the effect of salinity and initial temperature on the heating and cooling rate of water.

## Viva Questions with Answers

Q.1 What was the aim of your experiment?

ANS. To determine how the initial temperature and salinity of water affect its cooling and heating rate.

Q.2 What is the dependence of salinity and initial temperature on the heating and cooling rate?

ANS. In the experiment, we did not find any definite relation between salinity and heating and cooling rate but we roughly estimated that heating rate increases with salinity.

Q.3 What you had not established any definite relation between salinity and heating/cooling rate?

ANS. Because the trend we obtained was smaller than the error bars.

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