Features of Monocot and Dicot Plants | Science Experiment

by | Jun 19, 2022 | Biology, Experiments

Introduction

In this article, we will study some external features of monocot and dicot plants. Let us get the experiment started.

Aim

To study the external features of root, leaf, stem, and flowers of dicot and monocot plants.

Requirements

1. A pea plant and an onion plant with root, stem, leaf, and flower,

2. Two paper sheets,

3. Simple dissecting microscope,

4. A hand lens,

5. Coverslip,

6. Razorblade,

7. A few seeds of a gram,

8. Pea,

9. Maize,

10. Petri dish,

11. Water.

Theory

A. Monocot

1. They have a single cotyledon in their leaves.

2. The leaves of these plants have parallel venation and are narrow.

3. Fibrous roots are present.

4. Trimerous flowers are present, i.e. they have thee or the multiple of three petals.

B. Dicot

1. Seeds have two cotyledons.

2. The leaves of this plant have reticulate venation and are broad.

3. There flowers are pentamerous, i.e., they have five or the multiple of five petals.

4. Their roots are tap.

Procedure

FOR ROOTS

Step 1: Thoroughly wash the plants’ roots.

Step 2: After washing, spread them on a newspaper.

Step 3: Now, observe the roots of the plants.

FOR LEAF

Step 4: Take the leaves of both the plants and observe their shapes one by one.

Step 5: Using a lens, carefully watch the veins of the leaves.

FOR FLOWER

Step 6: Take the flower of each plant and observe and count their petals, sepals, and stamen one by one.

Step 7: Now, you have to remove the carpel from both the flowers and gently cut the transverse section of their stem with a blade.

Features of Monocot and Dicot Plants

Step 8: On a slide, put a drop of water and then place the ovary of the flower on the slide using a brush.

Step 9: Cover the slide with the help of a coverslip.

Step 10: Place the slide under a microscope.

Step 11: Count the ovary’s number.

FOR SEEDS

Step 12: In separate Petri dishes, soak the seeds of both the plants.

Step 13: Split the seed into two parts by removing the seed coat, then count the number of cotyledons present in each seed.

Observation

ROOT LEAF FLOWER SEED
PEA It consists of a primary oot from which several other roots arise. Leaves are broad, and a thick vein known as the mid-vein is in the middle of the leaves. Many other veins originate from this mid vein, which gives them the shape of the net on both sides of the mid-rib. They have five petals, seals, and ten stamens. Pistil contains style, stigma, and ovary. The ovary contains carpel. Some beads called ovules are present on the wall of the ovary. Every seed has two cotyledons.
ONION All the roots are similar and come from the base. The leaves are narrow, and all the veins are similar and parallel Six staples and six stamens are present. It contains style, stigma, and ovary. The ovary contains three carpels. Ovaries are attached to the ovule. Every seed has one cotyledon.

 

Features of Monocot and Dicot Plants

Result

We have found that the

1. Dicot Plants have:

a. Taproot,

b. Broad leaves with reticulate venation,

c. Sepals, petals, and stamens are pentamerous,

d. Dicot seeds have two cotyledon

2. Monocot Plants have:

a. Fibrous root,

b. Narrow leaves with parallel venation,

c. Trimerous sepals, petals, and stamens.

d. Monocot seeds have one cotyledon.

Precautions

1. Use a sharp blade carefully.

2. The transverse section of the ovary must be kept in water to avoid it from drying.

Conclusion

In this way, we have studied some external features of monocot and dicot plants.

Viva Questions with Answers

Q.1 What was the aim of our experiment?

ANS. To determine and study some external features of monocot and dicot plants.

Q.2 Give some examples of monocot plants.

ANS. Maize, onion, and wheat.

Q.3 How many cotyledons are present in monocot seeds?

ANS. One

Q.4 Give some examples of dicot plants.

ANS. Pea and gram

Q.5 How many cotyledons are present in dicot seeds?

ANS. Two

Q.6 Do you think pea and onion are angiosperm?

ANS. Yes

Q.7 Why do you think they are angiosperm?

ANS. Because they bear, fruits and flowers and seeds are covered in fruits.

Q.8 How many petals are present in monocot plants?

ANS. Three

Q.9 How many petals are present in dicot plants?

ANS. Five

Q.10 What kind of root system is there in monocot plants?

ANS. Tap-root system.

 

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