**Introduction**

In this science experiment, we will study how angular momentum affects different pitches in softball. To perform this study, we will determine how the angular momentum of a pitch is affected by the varying radius of the softball pitcher’s arm.

**Aim**

To find how the angular momentum of a pitch gets affected by the varying radius of the softball pitcher’s arm.

**Theory**

1. Softball is an outdoor game similar to baseball but is played with a larger ball than baseball.

2. The ball usually has a circumference of 28 to 40 cm. The field has a base length of 60 feet. The fence of the home run depends on the kind of softball, and it is 200 to 300 cm away from the home plate. It has a pitcher’s mound that ranges from 35 to 43 feet away from home plate.

3. The person who plays softball is known as a softball pitcher.

**Requirements**

1. Camera

2. iMovie Editing Program

3. Spreadsheet

4. Softball

5. Notebook.

**Procedure**

**Step 1:** Using a camera, film five different pitchers as they throw various pitches.

**Step 2:** Review the pitches in an iMovie editing program.

**Step 3:** Calculate the exact timing of the pitcher’s arms circle for determining the angular velocity.

**Step 4:** Calculate the radius by measuring the distance from the shoulder to the middle of the palm.

**Step 5:** Record all the data in a spreadsheet.

**Step 6:** Next, weigh the softball.

**Step 7:** Using the massed softball and measured radius from a particular pitch as a changing variable, determine the rotational inertia.

**Observation**

1. From our experiment, we observed that angular momentum increases on the increment of rotational inertia, and the rice ball had the smallest radius, i.e., 0.5363 m, with the least angular momentum at 0.8517 N*m/sec. At the same time, the fastball had the largest radius, i.e., 6066 m, with the greatest angular momentum at 1.168 N*m/sec.

2. We also observed that angular momentum might not be applicable for solving this type of particular problem, although the equation for angular momentum is widely accepted.

**Result**

1. On increasing the radius, angular momentum increases.

2. On looking at the equation of angular momentum, it is clear that the angular velocity remains constant. Therefore, the changing factor in the equation is the rotational inertia.

3. To conserve angular momentum, the angular velocity must also be a changing variable. And in this case, the pitcher provided the constant external force as angular velocity, which allowed for no vaccination in number.

4. Mass was constant in this experiment.

**Precaution**

1. Radius should be measured from the shoulder to the middle of the pal of pitchers.

2. Record your observation carefully on a spreadsheet.

**Conclusion**

We determined how angular momentum affects different pitches in softball by using the laws of physics.

**VIVA Questions With Answers**

**Q.1 What was the aim of your experiment?**

ANS. To find how the angular momentum of a pitch gets affected by the varying radius of the softball pitcher’s arm.

**Q.2 Give a difference between baseball and softball.**

ANS. A softball has a circumference of 11.88 to 12.13 inches, while a baseball has a circumference of 9 to 9.5 inches. The weight of a softball is between 6 to 7 ounces, while the weight of a baseball is between 5 to 5.25 ounces.

**Q.3 What is the result of your experiment?**

ANS. We found that on increasing the temperature, the radius increases.

**Q.4 What was the changing factor in the angular momentum equation in your experiment?**

ANS. The changing factor in the equation was the rotational inertia.

Saquib Siddiqui is a Mechanical Engineer with expertise in science projects and experiments. Saquib’s work focuses on integrating scientific concepts with practical applications, making complex ideas accessible and exciting for learners of all ages. In addition to his practical work, Saquib has authored several articles, research papers, and educational materials.

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