How To Make A 3-Axis CNC Machine

by | Apr 10, 2022 | DIY, Wood Work

Home » DIY » How To Make A 3-Axis CNC Machine


3-Axis CNC machine is very popular to trace the design and do productive tasks. So, today our agenda is to learn how to make a 3-Axis CNC Machine. So, let us not waste our time and start the process.


In the article’s next section, let us look at the supplies list mentioned below.


  • Pencil
  • Ruler
  • Hand Saw
  • Drilling Machine
  • 3 Millimetres screws
  • Glue
  • Square Ruler


  • 8mm MDF Board
  • MGN15H Linear Rail
  • Stepper Motors
  • M3 Bolts
  • Gt2 Idler Pullies
  • Laser Module
  • Gt2 Belts
  • Zip Tie
  • Furniture Pads
  • Micro-limit Switch
  • Arduino Uno
  • CNC Shield
  • DRV 8825
  • Jumpers
  • GRBL Firmware
  • Goggles

Steps To Make A 3-Axis CNC Machine

Step 1: The first step is to design the machine with the help of a SolidWorks design tool.

Designing the Machine

Step 2: Then mark the designs on the MDF Board.

Marking the Design

Step 3: After that, cut the traced designs.

Cut the Design

Step 4: Once you cut all the pieces, start making holes in them.

Drilling the Holes

Step 5: Now, make mini holes at the central part where the X and Y axis will connect.

Marking Holes in Central Section

Step 6: After marking the holes on the central piece, drill the holes.

Drilling the Holes

Step 7: Now, continue assembling the base where the X-axis and Y-axis will be secured.

Assembling X and Y-Axis

Step 8: Now, secure the support and the base part together with the help of the first three millimetres screws.

Securing the Support

Step 9: After making the first hole make the second hole and then assemble them.

Assembling the Parts

Step 10: Now, take MGN15H Linear Rail (X-Axis) and then attach it to the MDF board.

Attaching the X-Axis

Step 11: The next step is to secure the stepper motor with the help of entry bolts.

Securing the Stepper Motor

Step 12: Install Gt2 Idler Pullies inside. Near the stepper shaft located near X-Axis.

Installing the Gt2 Pullies

Step 13: Similarly, on the Y-Axis, attach one Idler Pulley

Attaching the Pulley

Step 14: Now, connect the X-Axis and Y-Axis with the help of m3 bolts.

Connecting X and Y-Axis

Step 15: Using a square ruler, check whether both axes are perpendicular. And, if they are not, you must adjust them.

Adjusting the Measurements

Step 16: The following step is to secure the laser module with the help of m3 bolts.

Securing the Laser Module

Step 17: Cover the X axes and Y axes using Gt2 belts and secure them with a zip tie or bolts.

Covering the Axes with Gt2 Belts

Step 18: At the bottom of the machine, attach some furniture pads so that the machine will remain stable.

Attaching Furniture Pads

Step 19: Install the micro-limit switch for the X and Y axes.

Installing Switches

Step 20: Fix the Arduino Uno Board on the side of the machine, simultaneously fixing the CNC shield above it.

Fixing Arduino Board and CNC Shield

Step 21: Fix the jumpers on the shield

Fixing the Jumpers

Step 22: Now, solder the wires and then connect them directly from the stepper mort with the CNC shield.

Soldering and Connecting the Wires

Step 23: The next step is to connect the Laser Motor with the shield.

Connecting the Laser Motor

Step 24: Now connect the G-code and GRBL Firmware with the Arduino

Connecting G-code and GRBL Firmware with Arduino

Step 25: Now, open the GRBL console and connect the Arduino. Once the Arduino is connected, adjust the parameters according to the requirements.

Adjusting the Parameters

Step 26: Insert the image into the software and do the editing.

Inserting the Image

Step 27: Lastly, put the frame and click on the start button. It will print the design on board.

3-Axis CNC Machine

Things To Remember

  • Make sure while cutting the holes they are precise in size
  • Make sure you clean and apply grease on the MGN15H Linear Rail before assembling it
  • Be aware and wear the safety goggles


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