3-Axis CNC machine is very popular to trace the design and do productive tasks. So, today our agenda is to learn how to make a 3-Axis CNC Machine. So, let us not waste our time and start the process.
In the article’s next section, let us look at the supplies list mentioned below.
- Hand Saw
- Drilling Machine
- 3 Millimetres screws
- Square Ruler
- 8mm MDF Board
- MGN15H Linear Rail
- Stepper Motors
- M3 Bolts
- Gt2 Idler Pullies
- Laser Module
- Gt2 Belts
- Zip Tie
- Furniture Pads
- Micro-limit Switch
- Arduino Uno
- CNC Shield
- DRV 8825
- GRBL Firmware
Steps To Make A 3-Axis CNC Machine
Step 1: The first step is to design the machine with the help of a SolidWorks design tool.
Designing the Machine
Step 2: Then mark the designs on the MDF Board.
Marking the Design
Step 3: After that, cut the traced designs.
Cut the Design
Step 4: Once you cut all the pieces, start making holes in them.
Drilling the Holes
Step 5: Now, make mini holes at the central part where the X and Y axis will connect.
Marking Holes in Central Section
Step 6: After marking the holes on the central piece, drill the holes.
Drilling the Holes
Step 7: Now, continue assembling the base where the X-axis and Y-axis will be secured.
Assembling X and Y-Axis
Step 8: Now, secure the support and the base part together with the help of the first three millimetres screws.
Securing the Support
Step 9: After making the first hole make the second hole and then assemble them.
Assembling the Parts
Step 10: Now, take MGN15H Linear Rail (X-Axis) and then attach it to the MDF board.
Attaching the X-Axis
Step 11: The next step is to secure the stepper motor with the help of entry bolts.
Securing the Stepper Motor
Step 12: Install Gt2 Idler Pullies inside. Near the stepper shaft located near X-Axis.
Installing the Gt2 Pullies
Step 13: Similarly, on the Y-Axis, attach one Idler Pulley
Attaching the Pulley
Step 14: Now, connect the X-Axis and Y-Axis with the help of m3 bolts.
Connecting X and Y-Axis
Step 15: Using a square ruler, check whether both axes are perpendicular. And, if they are not, you must adjust them.
Adjusting the Measurements
Step 16: The following step is to secure the laser module with the help of m3 bolts.
Securing the Laser Module
Step 17: Cover the X axes and Y axes using Gt2 belts and secure them with a zip tie or bolts.
Covering the Axes with Gt2 Belts
Step 18: At the bottom of the machine, attach some furniture pads so that the machine will remain stable.
Attaching Furniture Pads
Step 19: Install the micro-limit switch for the X and Y axes.
Step 20: Fix the Arduino Uno Board on the side of the machine, simultaneously fixing the CNC shield above it.
Fixing Arduino Board and CNC Shield
Step 21: Fix the jumpers on the shield
Fixing the Jumpers
Step 22: Now, solder the wires and then connect them directly from the stepper mort with the CNC shield.
Soldering and Connecting the Wires
Step 23: The next step is to connect the Laser Motor with the shield.
Connecting the Laser Motor
Step 24: Now connect the G-code and GRBL Firmware with the Arduino
Connecting G-code and GRBL Firmware with Arduino
Step 25: Now, open the GRBL console and connect the Arduino. Once the Arduino is connected, adjust the parameters according to the requirements.
Adjusting the Parameters
Step 26: Insert the image into the software and do the editing.
Inserting the Image
Step 27: Lastly, put the frame and click on the start button. It will print the design on board.
3-Axis CNC Machine
Things To Remember
- Make sure while cutting the holes they are precise in size
- Make sure you clean and apply grease on the MGN15H Linear Rail before assembling it
- Be aware and wear the safety goggles
Saquib Siddiqui is a Mechanical Engineer with expertise in science projects and experiments. Saquib’s work focuses on integrating scientific concepts with practical applications, making complex ideas accessible and exciting for learners of all ages. In addition to his practical work, Saquib has authored several articles, research papers, and educational materials.