Making and Testing Soaps

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In this science experiment, we will be making and testing soaps from each of the ingredients, like vegetable soap and vegetable shortening.

We hypothesize that the soap created from vegetable shortening will turn out to be better than the soap created from vegetable oil. The soap that was created from vegetable oil would not be smooth and creamy as the soap created from vegetable shortening.

To test our hypothesis, we called ten female students and ten male students to wash their hands using different soaps and tell us which smelled or felt the best.

Through distillation, we will also be producing three different kinds of essential oils. Using a pH meter, we will also measure the pH of different shampoos.


To prepare soaps from vegetable oil and vegetable shortening and test which soap performs better.


1. The process by which a liquid is converted into vapour by heating and then condensing back to its liquid state is called distillation.

2. The process of passing the vapour of crude oil (by heating it) to separate the different and essential compounds from it is called crude oil distillation.


1. Condenser Tube

2. Rubber Tubing

3. Petri Dishes

4. Lids

5. Flask

6. L-shaped Tube

7. Beakers

8. Hot Plate

9. 4 tablespoons of ground oil

10. Lemon peel

11. Orange peel

12. Rubber stoppers

13. Vegetable oil

14. Reagent alcohol

15. pH meters

16. 1 oz. bottle

17. 6 different brands of shampoos

18. Beaker

19. Sodium hydroxide

20. Springwater

21. Vegetable shortening

22. Vegetable oil


Step 1: Using the distillation process, produce different types of essential oils. The required materials are a Condenser Tube, Petri Dishes and Lids, Rubber Tubing, a Flask, a Hot Plate, an L-Shaped Tube, Beakers, orange peel, 4 Tablespoons of ground coffee, and lemon peel, vegetable oil, Rubber stoppers, reagent alcohol.

Step 2: In a carton filled with water, add sodium hydroxide.

Step 3: Seal the lid of the carton. Mix them thoroughly.

Step 4: Add 100 ml of vegetable oil into the solution when the flakes disappear.

Step 5: Mix these well and leave them to dry for several days.

Making and Testing Soaps

Step 6: Similarly, prepare three soaps from vegetable shortening.

Step 7: For the next experiment, take different types of shampoos.

Step 8: Test the pH of these shampoos using a pH meter.

Step 9: Record your observations.


1. We observed that the soap that we created from the vegetable shortening performed exceptionally well in the experiment.

2. As a whole, the soap that was created from the vegetable shortening was evenly mixed and creamier.

3. From our pH experiment, we observed that the shampoos had a pH of 7.

4. The survey found that vegetarian soap was the least popular and oatmeal soap was the most popular.


1. From the survey, if we had to market soap for ladies, then we would create a soap with an oatmeal fragrance and country apple soap texture.

2. And for the males, the oatmeal soap would be as it is.

3. Through distillation, we created three different types of oil, namely orange, lemon, and coffee.

4. The pH of all different manufactured shampoos was correct.

4. Our hypothesis, which assumed that the soap created from vegetable shortening would perform better, is correct.


1. The mixture of NaOH in water produces enough heat, so handle it carefully.

2. Mix the solution well.


This experiment of making and testing soaps determined which type of soap would perform better by creating them with vegetable oil and vegetable shortening.

VIVA Questions With Answers

Q.1 What was the aim of your experiment?

ANS. In this making and testing soaps science experiment, we aimed to determine which kind of soap is best prepared from vegetable oil and vegetable shortening.

Q.2 What was the result of your experiment?

ANS. We found that the soap created from vegetable shortening performed better.


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