# Seebeck Effect Experiment

Contents

## Introduction

We will perform a Seebeck Effect Experiment. To perform this experiment, we hypothesized that metals having the largest difference in ionization energy between the metal and Chromel or Steel would generate the largest potential. For instance, nickel has the lowest ionization energy among all metals, so we expect that it will have the highest number of microvolts and be the best thermocouple material.

## Basic Building Concept

1. Ionization energy is the amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom and molecules.

2. The amount of energy released and absorbed during the change in the number of elements is called the chemical potential of that element. ## Aim

To check whether the metals having the largest difference in ionization energy generate the largest potential.

## Theory

1. The generation of electric potential when two different metal strips are joined together, where the two metal junctions are at different temperatures, is called the Seebeck effect.

2. In this experiment, we measure the potential by pairing Nickel, Copper, Tungsten, Silver, and Alumel (consisting of 5% Aluminum and 95% Nickel) with Chromel (consisting of 10% chromium and 90% nickel) and steel at the temperature 0⁰C and 100⁰C.

1. Boiling Water

2. Ice Water

## Procedure

Step 1: Submerge the thermocouples in ice water and boil water.

Step 2: Measure the resulting voltage with the help of a voltmeter.

Step 3: You can make a voltmeter with a fluke 87 multimeter and a fluke 80 TK thermocouple module to measure temperature in degrees Celsius.

## Observation

1. We observed that when Nickel wire coupled with Chromel generated the highest potential.

2. After nickel, Alumel, Silver, Copper, and Tungsten come.

3. The thermoelectric sensitivity of each metal is the Seebeck coefficient of that metal.

4. The ionization energy of each metal is directly linked to the Seebeck coefficient.

5. The larger the difference between the Seebeck coefficient of paired metals, the higher will be the voltage.

## Result

Our hypothesis made in this Seebeck Effect experiment is correct, and Nickel wire coupled with Chromel generated the highest potential.

## Precaution

1. Measure the voltage correctly.

2. Check the voltmeter before use.

3. Voltmeter should be placed perfectly.

Q.1 What was the aim of your experiment?

ANS. To check whether the metals having the largest difference in ionization energy generate the largest potential.

Q.2 What was the hypothesis of this experiment?

ANS. The hypothesis is that the metals having the largest difference in ionization energy between the metal and Chromel Steel would generate the largest potential.

Q.3 Name the element which has the highest ionization energy.

ANS. Fluorine (except helium) is the element that has the highest ionization energy.

Q.4 Name the element that has the lowest ionization energy.

ANS. Caesium is the element that has the lowest ionization energy.

Q.5 What do you understand about the Seebeck effect?

ANS. The generation of electric potential when two different metal strips are joined together, where the two metal junctions are at different temperatures, is called the Seebeck effect.

Q.6 Is your hypothesis correct or wrong?

ANS. With the help of this experiment, I found out that my assumption was correct.

Q.7 What result have you obtained in this experiment?

ANS. When the Nickel wire coupled with Chromel generates the highest potential, there comes Alumel, Silver, Copper, and Tungsten.

Q.8 The thermoelectric sensitivity of an element depends on its characteristics.

ANS. It depends on the Seebeck effect.

Q.9 Ionisation energy of metal is directly linked to which feature of an element?

ANS. Seebeck effect.

Q.10 Define the relation between voltage and the Seebeck effect.

ANS. The larger the difference between the Seebeck coefficient of paired metals, the higher will be the voltage.