**Introduction**

In this science experiment, we will be dealing with the speed of sound in various mediums and its change with respect to changing temperature.

Our hypothesis is that sound travels faster in steel. And we are also assuming that the sound will travel faster from steel at high temperatures.

**Aim**

To determine the speed of sound in various mediums and its effect on temperature.

**Theory**

1. The distance traveled by sound waves per unit of time in propagation is the speed of sound.

2. The speed of sound in air at twenty degrees Celsius is 343 m/sec.

3. The formula for the speed of sound is-

**c= (Ks/ρ)^1/2**

*Where c = speed of sound*

**Ks** = coefficient of stiffness

**Ρ** = density

**Requirements**

1. Steel

2. Glass

3. Oscilloscope

4. Function Generator

5. Scale

7. Stopwatch

8. Water

9. Teflon

**Procedure**

**Step 1:** Pass the sound through different materials.

**Step 2:** Measure the speed of sound in different materials using an oscilloscope, two ultrasound transducers, and a function generator.

**Step 3:** Now, using a stopwatch, calculate the time taken by sound to travel from one end to another end.

**Step 4:** Calculate the speed by using the formula

**Speed = Distance Traveled/Time ***Taken (S = D/T)*

**Step 5:** Repeat every test with three different lengths.

**Step 6:** Now, average the result.

**Step 7:** Compare the result at two different temperatures.

**Observations**

1. We observed that the speed of sound at 5270 m/sec through the glass was the fastest and the slowest through the air at 343 m/sec.

2. The speed of sound in water increased by 20% by increasing temperature.

3. The speed of sound in Teflon decreased by 37% by increasing temperature.

**Results**

1. Our hypothesis, which said sound travels faster in steel, is incorrect. From our experiment, we saw that the speed of sound was second fastest through steel, after glass

2. We have also assumed that the speed of sound in steel will increase with increasing temperature, but our result is inconclusive due to the measurement error.

3. We found through the experiment that the speed of sound increases with temperature, but we found the inverse effect on PVC, Teflon, and Acrylic.

**Precautions**

1. Take the measurement carefully,

2. Cautiously put the values in the formula.

3. Compare the result carefully.

**Conclusion**

In this experiment, to find the speed of sound in various mediums, we measure the speed of sound in different materials and its effect on changing temperature.

**VIVA Questions With Answers**

**Q.1 What was the aim of your experiment?**

ANS. To determine the speed of sound in different materials and its effect on changing temperature.

**Q.2 What was your hypothesis for this experiment?**

ANS. We hypothesized that sound travels faster in steel. And we also assumed that the sound would travel faster from steel at high temperatures.

**Q.3 Is your hypothesis correct?**

ANS. No, our hypothesis, which said sound travels faster in steel, is incorrect. From our experiment, we saw that the speed of sound was second fastest through steel, after glass.

**Q.4 What is the result of your experiment?**

ANS. We observed that the speed of sound at 5270 m/sec through the glass was the fastest and the slowest through the air at 343 m/sec.

**Q.5 Define the dependence of the speed of sound in a medium on the elasticity of that medium.**

ANS. As the elasticity increases, density decreases, and the speed of sound increases. So the speed of sound in a medium is directly proportional to the elasticity of that medium.

Saquib Siddiqui is a Mechanical Engineer with expertise in science projects and experiments. Saquib’s work focuses on integrating scientific concepts with practical applications, making complex ideas accessible and exciting for learners of all ages. In addition to his practical work, Saquib has authored several articles, research papers, and educational materials.

## 0 Comments