The Effect of A Shield on Beta Particles and Gamma Rays | Science Experiment

by | Jul 11, 2022 | Physics, Experiments

Introduction

As we know, shields stop beta particles and gamma rays from reaching a point. Therefore, we hypothesize that the greater shield density has a greater effect on blocking radioactivity. Let’s study the Effect of a Shield on Beta Particles and Gamma Rays.

Aim

To determine the effect of a shield on Beta particles and Gamma Rays and whether the greater density of the shield has a greater effect on blocking radioactivity.

Theory

1. The positively charged alpha particles consist of two neutrons and two protons. These particles are emitted by stable atoms, such as radium and uranium.

2. The negatively charged beta particles are small and fast-moving particles. These particles are emitted by unstable atoms, such as carbon-14 and tritium.

3. The weightless packet of energy called photons are Gamma rays. They are pure energy unless alpha and beta particles have both mass and energy.

4. At the time of radioactive decay, gamma rays emit alpha particles and beta particles.

5. X- rays are photons of pure energy. X-rays and gamma rays are the same, but they come from different elements. Gamma rays originate inside the nucleus, while X-rays originate outside the nucleus.

The Effect of A Shield on Beta Particles and Gamma Rays

Source

Requirements

1. Geiger Counter,

2. Beta sample,

3. Gamma sample,

4. Twenty different shields,

Procedure

Step 1: Se up the Geiger Counter.

Step 2: Using different slides, read each source. (Each slide has a mass, thickness, and different materials).

Step 3: Conduct five trials for each shield.

Step 4: Now, average your data.

Observation

1. We observed that the gamma rays and beta particles when passing through a shield of the greater mass, showed less reading when passing through the shield of lesser mass.

2. Gamma rays were more powerful than beta particles.

Result

1. Our hypothesis is correct: beta particles and gamma rays are stopped by the shield.

2. And we also saw that this effect varies with the density of the shield.

Precaution

1. Carefully use the beta particle and gamma rays.

2. Your result should be the average value of five experiments.

Conclusion

In this experiment, we determined the effectiveness of different materials for blocking beta particles and gamma rays.

Viva Questions with Answers

Q.1 What was the aim of your experiment?

ANS. To determine the effect of a shield on Beta particles and Gamma Rays and whether the greater density of the shield has a greater effect on blocking radioactivity.

Q.2 What do you understand about beta particles?

ANS. The positively charged alpha particles consist of two neutrons and two protons. These particles are emitted by stable atoms, for instance, radium and uranium.

Q.3 What do you understand about the Gamma rays?

ANS. The weightless packet of energy called photons is Gamma rays. They are pure energy unless alpha and beta particles have both mass and energy.

Q.4 What is the difference between Gamma rays and X-rays?

ANS. X- rays are photons of pure energy. X-rays and gamma rays are the same, but they come from different elements. Gamma rays originate inside the nucleus, while X-rays originate outside the nucleus.

Q.5 What is the result of your density?

ANS. We observed that the gamma rays and beta particles when passing through a shield of the greater mass, showed less reading when passing through a shield of lesser mass.

 

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