Types of Reactions | Science Experiment

by | Jun 5, 2022 | Chemistry, Experiments

INTRODUCTION

We will learn to determine the types of reactions happening in this experiment.

BASIC BUILDING CONCEPTS

We know that there are four types of reactions in chemistry.

1. Combination reaction,

2. Decomposition reaction,

3. Displacement reaction,

4. Double displacement reaction.

COMBINATION REACTION

In this type of reaction, two or more compounds or elements combine to form a new compound in this type of reaction. For example,

2Mg + O2 → 2MgO

Magnesium Oxygen  Magnesium Oxide

The basic form of this reaction is A + X → AX

DECOMPOSITION REACTION

In this type of reaction, components or simpler compounds are formed by the breaking down of a single reactant on heating. For example,

2KClO3 → 2KCl + 3O2

Potassium Chlorate  Potassium Chloride Oxygen

The basic form of this reaction is AX A + X

DISPLACEMENT REACTION

In this type of reaction more reactive element displaces a less reactive element from its position. For example,

Zn + CuSO4 → ZnSO4 + Cu

Zinc Copper Sulphate  Zinc Sulphate Copper

The basic form of this reaction is A + B X → AX + B

The Reactivity of metals depends on their capacity to lose an electron, and the reactivity of non-metals depends on their ability to gain an electron

DOUBLE DISPLACEMENT REACTION

In this type of reaction, a new compound is formed when ions of different compounds combine. For example,

NaCl + AgNO3 → NaNO3 + AgCl

Sodium Chloride Silver Nitrate  Sodium Nitrate Silver Chloride

The basic form of this reaction is AX + BY → AY + BX

EXPERIMENT A

AIM

To perform the reaction between water and soda-lime and name the type of reaction it is.

MATERIAL REQUIRED

1. Calcium oxide,

2. Water,

3. Beaker,

4. Glass rode,

5. Dropper,

6. Red litmus paper,

7. Test tube,

8. Filter paper,

9. Funnel

THEORY

1. Calcium oxide and water react to form calcium hydroxide.

2. In this reaction, two compounds combine two to form a new compound. Therefore, this reaction is a combination reaction.

CaO + H2O → Ca(OH)2 + heat

Calcium Oxide Water  Calcium Hydroxide

3. This reaction can also be called an exothermic reaction because heat evolved from this reaction.

PROCEDURE AND OBSERVATION TABLE

S.NO EXPERIMENT OBSERVATION INFERENCE
In a beaker, take some calcium oxide and pour water slowly into it. Stir it well using a crystal glass rod. Touch the outer surface. With a hissing sound, a new substance will form.

The outer surface is hot.

When water reacts with quicklime, a new substance is formed.

Heat is evolved in this reaction.

With the help of a dropper, drop this solution on litmus paper. Red litmus changes to blue litmus. The new substance formed is basic in nature.
Filter this solution with the help of a funnel and take 5ml of this solution in a beaker. Blow air through this solution. Carbon dioxide turns milky while passing it through clear filtrate. The new substance formed is calcium hydroxide.

RESULT

In this reaction, two compounds, quick lime and water, combine to form a new compound; therefore, this reaction is a combination reaction.

PRECAUTIONS

1. Handle quicklime with utmost care as it can burn severely.

2. Water must be poured slowly.

3. The Filtrate must be clean.

EXPERIMENT B

AIM

To perform the action of heat on ferrous sulphate and determine the name of this reaction.

MATERIAL REQUIRED

1. Ferrous sulphate crystals,

2. Test tubes,

3. Test tube holder,

4. Blue litmus paper.

THEORY

1. When ferrous sulphate is heated, it undergoes a decomposition reaction.

2. Ferrous sulphate is green in colour.

2FeSO4 → Fe2O3 + SO2 + SO3

Ferrous Sulphate  Ferric Oxide Sulphur Dioxide Sulphur Trioxide

3. Sulphur dioxide and sulphur trioxide are acidic in nature and turn blue litmus to red.

PROCEDURE AND OBSERVATION

S.NO PROCEDURE OBSERVATION INFERENCE
In a dry test tube, take two grams of dry ferrous sulphate and note down its colour. The ferrous sulphate crystals are green in colour. The ferrous sulphate crystals are green in colour.
Heat this test tube. The colour changes to brown, and a colourless gas with a burning smell of sulphur is evolved. New compounds are formed by the heating of ferrous sulphate.
Bring a moist blue litmus paper in contact with gas evolved from the reaction. Litmus paper turns red. The nature of gas evolved is acidic.
Dip a strip of litmus paper in an acidified solution of potassium chromate and bring it in contact with the evolved gas. The orange colour of the strip turns into a green colour. Sulphur dioxide and sulphur trioxide gases are evolved.

RESULT

Ferric oxide, sulphur dioxide and sulphur trioxide are formed by heating ferrous sulphate. Therefore this reaction is a decomposition reaction.

PRECAUTIONS

1. Keep the mouth of the test tube containing ferrous sulphate away from you while heating.

2. Wash your hands properly after the experiment.

EXPERIMENT C

AIM

To perform the reaction between iron nails and copper sulphate solution and name this reaction.

MATERIAL REQUIRED

1. Iron nails,

2. Copper sulphate solution,

3. Test tubes,

4. Test tube stand,

5. Sandpaper

6. Thread.

THEORY

When iron nails are immersed in copper sulphate solution, iron displaces copper from its position. Therefore this reaction is a displacement reaction.

Fe + CuSO4 → Fe2SO4 + Cu

Iron Copper Sulphate  Iron Sulphate Copper

Iron is more reactive than copper; therefore, it displaces copper from its position.

PROCEDURE

Step 1: With the help of sandpaper, clean two iron nails.

Step 2: Take two test tubes and pour 10 ml of copper sulphate solution into each test tube.

Step 3: Name these test tubes as A and B.

Types of Reactions: Displacement Reaction Types of Reactions: Displacement Reaction

Step 4: Take one nail and tie it with a thread and immerse it in test tube A. Leave it for 20 minutes

Step 5: Take out the iron nail from the test tube and compare the intensity of the colour of both the test tubes.

Step 6: Compare the intensity of the colour of the iron nail also.

OBSERVATION

1. The colour of the copper sulphate solution was blue, which changed into light green after immersing an iron nail in it.

2. The colour of the iron nail was grey which changed to reddish-brown colour after immersing it in copper sulphate solution.

RESULT

Iron displaces copper from its position because iron is more reactive than copper. In this reaction, two products are formed, which are copper and ferrous sulphate. This reaction is a displacement reaction.

PRECAUTION

1. Iron nails must be cleaned to immerse them in copper sulphate solution.

2. Do not disturb the test tube, which contains iron nails and copper sulphate solution.

EXPERIMENT D

AIM

To perform the reaction between sodium sulphate and barium chloride and name this reaction.

MATERIAL REQUIRED

1. Sodium sulphate solution,

2. Barium chloride solution,

3. Test tube,

4. Beaker.

THEORY

When sodium sulphate solution and barium chloride are mixed together, a white precipitate of barium sulphate is formed.

Na2SO4 + BACl2 → BaSO4 + 2NaCl

Sodium Sulphate Barium Chloride  Barium Sulphate Sodium Chloride

The type of this reaction is called the double displacement reaction.

PROCEDURE

Step 1: In a test tube, take 5ml of sodium sulphate and name it as A.

Step 2: Take 5ml barium chloride and name it as B in another test tube.

Step 3: Mix these solutions in a beaker.

Step 4: Stir that mixture with the help of a glass rod.

Step 5: Note down your observation.

Types of Reactions: Double Displacement Reaction

OBSERVATION

A white precipitate is formed by mixing sodium sulphate and barium chloride.

RESULT

1. A double displacement reaction will occur in this reaction.

2. Barium sulphate and sodium chloride are formed by mixing sodium sulphate and barium chloride.

PRECAUTIONS

1. Every piece of equipment should be cleaned before use.

2. Use an equal volume of sodium sulphate and barium chloride.

Viva Questions and Answers

Q.1 What do you mean by displacement reaction?

ANS. In this type of reaction more reactive element displaces a less reactive element from its position.

Q.2 Give an equation of the reaction between zinc and copper sulphate?

ANS. Zn + CuSO4 → ZnSO4 + Cu

Zinc Copper Sulphate Zinc Sulphate Copper

Q.3 What do you mean by decomposition reaction?

ANS. In this type of reaction, components or simpler compounds are formed by the breaking down of a single reactant on heating.

Q.4 What do you mean by double displacement reaction?

ANS. In this type of reaction, a new compound is formed when ions of different compounds combine.

Q.5 What do you mean by composition reaction?

ANS. In this type of reaction, two or more compounds or elements combine together to form a new compound.

Q.6 Give an equation for the reaction between sodium sulphate and barium chloride?

ANS. Na2SO4 + BACl2 → BaSO4 + 2NaCl

Sodium Sulphate Barium Chloride Barium Sulphate Sodium Chloride

Q.7 What kind of reaction is this/

ANS. Double displacement reaction.

Q.8 What was the aim of our experiment?

ANS. To perform different reactions and determine their type.

Q.9 Give an equation of the reaction between iron and copper sulphate solution?

ANS. Fe + CuSO4 → Fe2SO4 + Cu

Iron Copper Sulphate Iron Sulphate Copper

Q.10 Name the kinds of chemical reactions?

ANS. Chemical reactions are of four types;

1. Composition reaction,

2. Displacement react,

3. Double displacement reaction,

4. Composition reaction.

 

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