**Introduction**

In this zero gravity elevator experiment, we will be proving Newton’s laws of gravitation, his first and second law of motion, and the General Theory of Relativity by Alert Einstein.

**Aim**

To prove Newton’s law of motion, Newton’s law of gravitation and Einstein’s general theory of relativity with the help of zero gravity elevator experiment.

**Theory**

1. Newton’s three laws of motion are:

- The first law says that an object, either moving or at rest, does not change its position until and unless a second force is applied to it.
- The second law states that the force acting on an object is the multiple of mass and acceleration.
- The third law states that on the interaction of two objects, each of them applies an equal magnitude of the force on each other in opposite directions.

2. According to Newton’s law of gravitation, any matter in this universe attracts another matter with a force that is inversely proportional to the distance between these two matters and directly proportional to the product of their masses.

3. General relativity, proposed by Einstein, is a theory of gravitation defined by an equation known as Einstein’s Field Equation. This equation defines the topology of how objects move internally and in spacetime.

**Requirements**

1. Elevator car,

2. Elevator shaft,

3. Some weight,

4. A 30 frames per second video camera,

5. Electronic scale,

6. Electric drill.

**Procedure**

**Step 1:** Create an elevator shaft with an elevator car.

**Step 2:** Put some weight inside the elevator car that weighs differently when the elevator car moves vertically.

**Step 3:** Use 30 frames per second video camera to view the digital readout on an electronic scale.

**Step 4:** Use this electronic scale to weigh the weight in the car.

**Step 5: **During the ascent, calculate the different weights of the object.

**Step 6:** Measure the free fall of the car.

**Step 7:** Use an electric drill to propel the car in an upward direction.

**Observation**

1. We hypothesised that the weight in the car weighs more when the car moves in the upward direction with an accelerated speed than its initial weight. And our hypothesis was proven correct.

2. We also hypothesised that the initial weight and the weight at the constant speed of the car would be the same. And this hypothesis was also proved correct.

3. We hypothesised that the weight inside the car would weigh zero for a small period of time, and we observed that it did weigh zero for an average of about two to three frames on the video camera.

**Result**

1. Depending on how fast the acceleration is, the weight inside the car weighs more than its initial weight when the car is moving at an accelerating speed.

2. At a constant velocity, when an object moves downward or upward, the object will weigh the same as the initial weight.

3. And when the object was in free fall, it weighed zero for a short period of time.

**Precautions**

1. Record your observation carefully.

2. The mass of an object should neither be too large nor too small.

**Conclusion**

In this experiment, we tested and proved three laws of Isaac Newton and the special theory of relativity of Albert Einstein with the help of zero gravity elevator experiment.

**Viva Questions with Answers**

**Q.1 What was the aim of your experiment?**

ANS. To prove Newton’s law of motion, Newton’s law of gravitation and Einstein’s general theory of relativity with the help of zero gravity elevator experiment.

**Q.2 What is the first law of Newton?**

ANS. The first law says that an object, either moving or at rest, does not change its position until and unless a second force is applied to it.

**Q.3 What was the weight inside the car when it was moving at an accelerating speed?**

ANS. The weight inside the car weighed more than its initial weight when the car was moving at an accelerating speed.

**Q.4 When the weight of the object was zero?**

ANS. When the object was in free fall, it weighed zero for a short period of time.

**Q.5 When is the weight of an object weighs similar to the initial weight?**

ANS. At a constant velocity, when an object moves downward or upward, the object will weigh the same as the initial weight.

An Indian nuclear physicist, founding director, and professor of physics at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research.

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